Zhulin et al. [1972]
have reviewed the experiments of this type. Near-
equatorial injection of accelerated electrons aimed
upward along the magnetic field from Hawaii [Davis
et al., 1973] produced an artificial aurora at the
conjugate point. In analogous experiments with
barium shaped-charge generated plasma jets, ion
velocities of several km sec -• (to be contrasted with
velocities of approximately 10 m sec -• in isotropic
barium releases) made it possible to track ions
optically fo.r 7000 km [Fu et al., 1973]. Different
drift velocities were observed at conjugate points in
the northern and southern hemisphere suggesting
that magnetic field lines are not always equipoten-
rials [West½ott et al., 1972, 1973].
At midlatitudes, accelerated electrons have been
injected downwards along the magnetic field toward
the near conjugate point to produce artificial auroras
[Hess et al., 1971]. Pulsed electron beams reflected
from mirror points in both hemispheres have been
studied as a controlled population from which the
behavior of naturally injected, trapped energetic
electrons can be infered [Winckler et al., 1970].

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